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Health Encylopedia

Definition Itching is a peculiar tingling or uneasy irritation of the skin that causes a desire to scratch the affected area.
Alternative Names Pruritus
Considerations Itching can be all over (generalized) or only in a particular location (localized). There are many causes of itching ranging from the simple to the complex. Some groupings would include: Localized itching: skin irritation from insect bites and stings Localized or generalized itching:
  • Chemical irritation such as from
  • poison ivy or stinging nettle
  • Environmental causes (drying,
  • sunburn )
  • Hives
  • (localized to general)
  • Parasites (
  • body lice , head lice , pubic lice ) Generalized itching:
  • Infectious diseases (
  • chicken pox )
  • Allergic reactions
  • Kidney disease
  • Liver disease
  • with
  • jaundice
  • Medication reactions
  • Common Causes
  • Insect bites
  • Dry skin
  • Contact dermatitis
  • (
  • poison ivy or poison oak )
  • Contact irritants (such as soaps, chemicals, or wool)
  • Atopic dermatitis
  • Rashes
  • (may or may not itch)
  • Childhood infections (such as
  • chicken pox or measles )
  • Aging skin
  • Allergy
  • caused by food or drugs (antibiotics)
  • Superficial skin infections such as
  • folliculitis and impetigo
  • Pregnancy
  • Hepatitis
  • Iron deficiency anemia
  • Parasites such as
  • pinworm
  • Pityriasis rosea
  • Psoriasis
  • Seborrheic dermatitis
  • Urticaria
  • Drugs such as antibiotics (penicillin, sulfonamides), gold, griseofulvin, isoniazid, opiates, phenothiazines, or
  • vitamin A
    Home Care For persistent or severe itching, see your health care provider for a precise diagnosis and specific treatment instructions. In the meantime, there are some steps you can take to help deal with the itch:
  • Avoid scratching or rubbing the itchy areas. Keep fingernails short to avoid skin damage from any inadvertent scratching. Family members or friends may be able to help by calling attention to your scratching.
  • Wear cool, light, loose bedclothes. Avoid wearing rough clothing, particularly wool, over an itchy area.
  • Take lukewarm baths using little soap and rinsing thoroughly. Try a skin-soothing oatmeal or cornstarch bath.
  • Apply a soothing lotion after bathing to soften and cool the skin.
  • Apply cold compresses to an itchy area.
  • Avoid prolonged exposure to excessive heat and humidity.
  • Take up an enjoyable hobby that distracts from the itching during the day and makes you tired enough to sleep at night.
  • Try over-the-counter oral antihistamines such as diphenhydramine (Benadryl).
  • Try over-the-counter hydrocortisone cream.
  • Call your health care provider if
  • Itching is associated with other unexplained symptoms.
  • Itching is severe, prolonged or cannot be easily explained.
  • Notes: Most itching does not require medical evaluation. Try to rule out the obvious causes of itching. It is sometimes easy for a parent to discern the cause of a child's itching. Usually a simple visual examination will help you identify any bites, stings, rashes , dry skin , or irritation. Often the cause of itching is fairly obvious, such as a mosquito bite. Recurrent itching without obvious cause, total body itching, and recurrent hives are all indications that the itching should be evaluated as soon as possible. Such itching may be a symptom of an underlying disease or condition.
    What to expect at your health care provider's office Your health care provider will obtain your medical history and will perform a physical examination . Medical history questions documenting itching may include the following:
  • Time pattern
  • How long have you had this itch?
  • Does it itch all the time?
  • Does it seem to get worse?
  • Has it spread?
  • Aggravating or triggering factors
  • What do you think caused this itch?
  • Have you ever had this kind of itch before? What caused it then?
  • Do you recall any
  • irritant that you recently came in contact with?
  • Do you have any
  • allergies or sensitivities?
  • What medications are you taking?
  • Have you started using any new products recently? What was it?
  • Have you used any new soaps, fabric softeners, perfumes,
  • deodorants , fabrics (wool), or chemicals?
  • Have you been around animals?
  • Have you eaten
  • shellfish or nuts recently?
  • Have you had
  • insect bites recently?
  • Do you use lotions on your skin?
  • Have you been in the sun recently?
  • Location
  • What part of your body itches?
  • Is it all over your body (generalized itch)?
  • Is the itch limited to a specific area? What area?
  • Quality
  • What does the skin that itches look like?
  • Is there a
  • rash ?
  • Are there
  • blisters ?
  • Are there
  • scales ?
  • Other
  • Are you being treated for other medical conditions?
  • What other symptoms do you have?
  • If there is no localized infection or skin lesion , diagnostic studies such as blood tests, skin biopsies , or X-rays will focus on finding a systemic (whole body) cause. Prescribed medications may include topical corticosteroids, antihistamines, and/or tranquilizers.